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Issue No. 1 (17), 2017

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ECONOMIC SCIENCES

M. I. Svishcheva

PROBLEMS OF USE OF LAND RESOURCES AND PRODUCTION OF GRAIN CROPS

Svishcheva Margarita Igorevna - Chief Specialist, Analytical Center of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia, Moscow, Russia

E-mail: m.svishcheva@mcx.ru

annotation

The article discusses the problem of using land resources for growing grain crops in the Russian Federation in the period from 2010 to 2017. The presence of sown areas in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, as well as unused agricultural land, is disclosed.

Keywords

Grain production, sown area, grain, corn, unused land, crops.

Bibliographic address

Svishcheva M.I. Problems of the use of land resources and the production of grain crops // Risk management in the agro-industrial complex. 2017. No. 1. S. 63-69. URL: http://www.agrorisk.ru/20170106 [access date: DD.MM.YYYY]. ISSN 2413-6573.

Grain production forms the basis of the entire agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation and is the largest sub-sector of agriculture, on the development of which the food security of the country, the provision of the population with food and its standard of living largely depend.

The Russian Federation possesses 10% of the cultivated area in the world and 40% of the area of ​​chernozem soils, with a gross harvest of crops accounting for 4% of their world production.

As of January 1, 2017, the area of agricultural land [1] was 383.6 million hectares. The area of ​​agricultural land in this category of land amounted to 197.7 million hectares. Arable land accounts for 58.8% of agricultural land (116.2 million hectares). The decrease in the area of ​​arable land in 2016 amounted to 57.7 thousand hectares.

The sown area of ​​grain and leguminous crops in 2017 in the Russian Federation amounted to 80.6 million hectares, including the sown area of ​​grain and leguminous crops - 47.0 million hectares, which is 58.3% of the total arable land area.

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

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In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

The sown area of ​​winter and spring wheat in 2016 amounted to 27703.9 thousand hectares, which is 3.2% more than in 2015. In 2017, the sown area of ​​wheat amounted to 27,870.1 thousand hectares (+ 0.6% compared to 2016).

The largest share of sown areas in 2017 is located in the subjects of Privolzhsky (6,827.7 thousand ha, 24.5%), Siberian (6,244.6 thousand ha, 22.4%) and Yuzhny (5,856.8 thousand hectares). ha, 21.0%) federal districts.

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

The sown area of ​​winter and spring barley in 2016 in the Russian Federation amounted to 8,338.1 thousand hectares, which is 6.2% less than in 2015. In 2017, the sown area of ​​barley amounted to 8,044.8 thousand hectares (-3.5% compared to 2016).

The largest share of the sown area of ​​this crop in 2017 is located in the subjects of the Volga (2,837.9 thousand hectares, 35.3%) and Central (1,769.7 thousand hectares, 22.0%) federal districts.

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In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

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In these regions, 98.9% of the sown area of ​​barley falls on spring crops, 1.1% - on winter crops.

The sown area of ​​corn in 2016 in the Russian Federation amounted to 2,895.1 thousand hectares, which is 4.5% more than in 2015. In 2017, the sown area of ​​corn amounted to 3,105.9 thousand hectares (+ 7.3% compared to 2016).

The largest share of the sown area of ​​this crop in 2017 is located in the subjects of the Southern (1,038.8 thousand hectares, 33.4%) and Central (971.4 thousand hectares, 31.3%) federal districts.

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In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

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Total from 2012 to 2016 51.7 million tons of the active substance were removed from the soil with the harvest of agricultural crops, and 21.9 million tons of the active substance were introduced. Thus, the negative balance for 5 years amounted to 29.8 million tons of active ingredient.

Less nutrients are introduced into the land each year than are removed, which leads to depletion of the soil and a decrease in crop yields. This fact can lead to negative consequences on the horizon of 15-20 years, since producers will have to apply a significantly larger amount of fertilizers, which will lead to an increase in production costs, and this will negate one of the main advantages of Russian grain.

The volume of application of the active substance to the soil practically does not change over the past 5 years, however, more and more nutrients are removed every year, and in the last 2 years the rate of removal of nutrients has accelerated almost 2 times.

To compensate for the removal of nutrients, a wider use of mineral fertilizers is required. The largest amount of fertilizers in 2017 was purchased in the Central Federal District - 979.6 thousand tons, which is 36% of the total amount of fertilizers purchased in the Russian Federation in 2017, in second place in this indicator is the Southern Federal District, where 714.7 thousand tons of fertilizers or 26% of the total were purchased, and in third place is the Volga Federal District with 466.8 thousand tons or 17%.

Analysis of the volume of purchases in 2016 and 2017 shows the greatest growth is observed in the Far Eastern Federal District: in 2017, the volume of purchases in this region increased from 21.8 thousand tons in 2016 to 44.9 thousand tons in 2017 ., the growth was 106%. The second region in terms of the growth dynamics of fertilizer purchases is the Volga Federal District, where the volume of purchases in 2017 increased by 20% compared to 2016 - from 389.3 thousand tons to 466.8 thousand tons. In third place in terms of growth dynamics is the Southern Federal District, where the volume of fertilizer purchases increased by 13% from 630.7 thousand tons in 2016 to 714.7 thousand tons.

In the Russian Federation, 37 kg of the active substance are applied per hectare of arable land, while the average grain yield in the Russian Federation in 2016 was 26.2 c / ha. Cereal growers, on average, remove more nutrients from the soil than they put into it.

A possible solution could be additional subsidies for the purchase of fertilizers for agricultural enterprises and peasant farms. This decision will help preserve soil fertility in the country in the long term.

About half of all unused arable land in the Russian Federation can be put into circulation. In 2016, the area of ​​unused arable land was 20,775 thousand hectares, of which 10,507 thousand hectares are suitable for putting into circulation.

The greatest potential for increasing the arable land is in the Volga Federal District - 26% of all arable land suitable for putting into circulation is concentrated there. The Siberian and Central Federal Districts also have significant potential, they can put into circulation 2,660 thousand hectares and 2 408 thousand hectares of arable land, respectively, which is 25% and 23% of the total volume of unused arable land suitable for putting into circulation. The resources are most involved in terms of area in the North Caucasian and Far Eastern Federal Districts. In these districts, it is possible to put into circulation 90 and 294 thousand hectares of arable land, respectively.

Bibliography

1. Sown area of ​​agricultural crops Rosstat - Access mode URL: https://www.fedstat.ru/indicator/31328

2. Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography - URL access mode: https://rosreestr.ru/site/

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

SVISHCHEVA MI

PROBLEMS OF LAND USE AND GRAIN PRODUCTION

Margarita I. Svishcheva - Specialist, Analytical Center of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

E-mail: m.svishcheva@mcx.ru

Annotation

The article deals with the problem of the use of land resources in the cultivation of grain crops in the Russian Federation from 2010 to 2017. The availability of acreage in the subjects of the Russian Federation, as well as unused agricultural land.

Keywords

Grain production, acreage, grain, maize, unused land, crops

References:

1. Posevnyyeploshchadisel'skokhozyaystvennykhkul'turRosstat- RezhimdostupaURL: https://www.fedstat.ru/indicator/31328

2. Federal'nayasluzhbagosudarstvennoyregistratsii, kadastraikartografii– RezhimdostupaURL: https://rosreestr.ru/site/

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

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