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Issue No. 3 (19), 2017
In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”
In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”
B. A. Nefedov and G. A. Suvorov

Nefedov Boris Aleksandrovich - Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics named after A.V. Chayanov, RSAU-Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazeva, Moscow, Russia


SPIN: 6956-0680

Suvorov Gleb Aleksandrovich - Master's student of the Department of Management, Faculty of Economics named after A.V. Chayanov, RSAU-Moscow Agricultural Academy named after K.A. Timiryazeva, Moscow, Russia


RSCI SPIN: 1117-3869


The article continues a series of articles on topical issues of management in the agro-industrial complex. The questions about the formation of the production capacity of agricultural enterprises are considered, the characteristics of the linear (flow), fixed layout of the enterprise, the design process are presented.


Production capacity, location of the enterprise, design of the enterprise, production planning, design solution.

Bibliographic address

B.A. Nefedov, G.A. Suvorov Production capacity and design of the enterprise // Risk management in the agro-industrial complex. 2017.
No. 3. S. 5-15. URL: [access date: DD.MM.YYYY]. ISSN 2413-6573.

The creation of an operating system involves making decisions on the size of production facilities, their location and the design of material and technical objects, enterprises. Logistics is a very broad term that includes factories, factories, warehouses, shops, offices, etc.

During the development stage of an operating system, two interrelated questions arise:

  1. How many facilities and how much capacity do you need to create (in other words, whether to create several large enterprises or many smaller enterprises)?

  2. Where to place each of the objects?

Decisions about the number and performance of assets are usually driven by efficiency and marketing factors. Some specific factors favor the creation of large, centralized enterprises, other factors favor the preference of small, dispersed enterprises.

The factor that proves the benefits of large, centralized enterprises is more often the high capital intensity of the processing subsystem. Examples include power plants and hospitals that require expensive specialized equipment. Large enterprises are also preferable in those cases when it is required to organize in one place many people or different products. Examples include car assembly plants, airports, regional warehouses, and department stores.

The most common situation that favors a large number of small businesses is when customers are highly dispersed and require easy access to the business. Examples include banks, fast food outlets, fire stations.

Some operating systems have adopted a combined approach that uses both large and small businesses. Typical examples are chemical cleaning factories and photographic processing laboratories. In these cases, there are usually a large number of small, dispersed businesses that have direct contact with the clientele and centralized material handling centers.

Deciding on the location of enterprises is important. It is necessary to consider the following issues sequentially: - where to build the plant, in what place (region, etc.), in what city, on what site and in what existing building.

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

For the convenience of considering the issue, two levels of decision on the location of the enterprise are distinguished:

  1. Macro level - a decision about an object of a country, province or city;

  2. Micro level - the choice of a specific site or building for a given enterprise.

The factors taken into account when making a decision at each of these levels will be different.

The main factors considered at the macro level are as follows:

· Demographic and economic factors affecting the size and development of the main sales markets for operating system products;

· Sources and transportation costs for the delivery of materials required for the operating system;

· Quantity and quality of resources;

· Availability of sufficient amount of energy and water;

· Political stability;

· Tax policy and encouragement of economic development;

· Issues of environmental protection;

· The cost of land and construction;

· Living conditions (eg climate, education system, health care, culture, recreation, crime).

The most important factors at the micro level include:

· Restrictive regulations and industrial zones with neighboring facilities;

· Size, configuration and other technical aspects of the site;

· Availability of preferred modes of transport;

· The volume of transportation by customers, entrances;

· Availability and cost of energy supply and other services, including fire protection and waste disposal;

· The appearance of the site, which may or may not correspond to the nature of the enterprise;

· Proximity to residential areas and other facilities necessary for employees;

· The location of competitors, especially retailers or service providers.

For many types of enterprises, when deciding on the location, one factor is dominant. For example, car service stations are located on streets or on roads with heavy traffic or at an intersection, making it easier to access them.

After determining the location of the enterprise and its production capacity, when creating the operating system, the design of the enterprise itself takes place. This task comes down to determining the configuration of the enterprise, i.e. the size, shape of the structure and the location of production resources within it. Consider the main types of projects or production plans and general procedures for project development.

When designing industrial enterprises, depending mainly on the type of processing subsystem, three main types of planning solutions are used: a cooperative functional scheme, a linear side layout scheme and a fixed positional layout.

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In cooperative functional planning, production resources are grouped according to the work (process) performed. So, in a machine shop, all lathes are grouped in one area, all drilling - in another, etc. Large auto repair shops usually have different areas for different types of service: an engine adjustment area, a bodywork area, and a front suspension repair area.

This layout is typically used in small batch production where individual products or customers move from one site to another, depending on specific requirements. The biggest challenge in cooperative planning is minimizing the transport or customer movements required to process a batch or provide services to customers passing through the system.

Linear or in-line layout is used in mass production or in systems with continuous processes, where each manufactured item actually goes through the same processing steps. Manufacturing resources are arranged in the form of a sequence of jobs in accordance with those operations that are required to release the finished "product", an example of such a layout is the assembly line. In the service sector, such a layout should be used, for example, in offices that process applications for a driver's license. The main problem with this layout is the correct distribution of workloads to avoid bottlenecks.

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

Fixed and positional planning is mainly implemented in the implementation of projects, for example, construction projects. In this case, the products or the consumer are stationary, various production resources are supplied to the place of work as needed. Such layouts are mostly temporary in nature, and they are retained only until the end of work on the project. The problem with this layout is that they do not interfere with each other.

All of these layouts can sometimes be found in one enterprise. An agricultural enterprise, for example, has a cooperative layout (workshops and departments specializing in various operations). In addition, laboratories at the enterprise can be built on a flow-through scheme of work.

The design process of an enterprise (material and technical object, production enterprise) consists of a number of logically related stages. Failure to sequence the steps can lead to production-destructive errors that are expensive to fix. All of these steps include:

  1. Collection of initial data. The designer must have detailed information on:

· The scheme of the planning of the production process permitted at the enterprise;

· A given productivity and range of products;

· Data on the site (size, configuration) and any existing building on the site (floor plans, floor heights, floor bearing capacity);

· Building codes and any other regulations, once again related to safety, protection, environmental protection.

2. Determination of the number and types of production resources required to ensure a given productivity. For example, how many cash points should be provided in the bank to service the expected number of customers?

3. Determination of the floor area required for each production site. If there will be four machines in the offset printing department, how much space will be required for this department of the master, supply areas, rest rooms or repair services?

4. Analyzing the connections between different sites involves determining which of them should be located closer to each other, and which can or should be spaced. It may turn out that two sites need to be placed side by side, taking into account the transition of materials or customers from one site to another. At airports, for example, car rental offices are always located next to the baggage claim area. Some areas have to be demolished, which is usually done for environmental reasons, safety, etc. An area of ​​an industry, for example, needs to be located away from a small-scale processing area where dust and high vibration are generated.

5. Based on the results of stages 3 and 4, a general layout is developed, indicating all sizes and locations of each production and auxiliary site. At the same time, several possible options are usually worked out.

6. A clear definition of the exact location of each piece of equipment, furniture and other production resources at each site, often this work is performed using templates that are superimposed on the general layout drawing and, moving them to different positions, achieve the optimal location of the equipment. Recently, this work has been carried out with the help of a computer.

The plant design process takes many factors into account and involves a number of trade-offs. Usually, in view of the very high degree of complexity of the problem, and the only acceptable approach is to strive for a "stable" rather than an "optimized" result. For design, both the analytical and the creative skills of the developer are important.

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”


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Boris A. Nefedov - Doctor in Technical Sciences, Professor, Department for Management, Faculty of Economics and Management named after AV Chayanov, RSAU-MAA named after KA Timiryazev, Moscow, Russia


Gleb A. Suvorov - Graduate Student, Department for Management, Faculty of Economics and Management named after AV Chayanov, RSAU-MAA named after KA Timiryazev, Moscow, Russia



The article deals with the issues of the formation of the production capacity of agricultural enterprises, presents the characteristic of linear (flow), fixed planning of the enterprise, the design process.


Production capacity, location of the enterprise, design of the enterprise, production planning, design solution.


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Vershigora Ye.Ye. Menedzhment: uchebnoye posobiye. / Ye.Ye. Vershigora - 2-ye izd., Pererab. i dop. - M .: INFRA-M, 2003 .-- 284 s.

In the meantime, there is no need to know about it. ”
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